PDF | A careful reading of the KUBARK manual is essential for anyone involved in interrogation, if perhaps for no other reason than to uncover a definition of. Its purpose is to provide guidelines for KUBARK interrogation, and particularly the counterintelligence interrogation of resistant sources. “An environment still more subject to control, such as water-tank or iron lung, is even more effective,” the KUBARK manual concludes.
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This manual cannot teach anyone how to be, or become, a good interrogator. At best it can help readers to avoid the characteristic mistakes of poor interrogators. Its purpose is to provide guidelines for KUBARK interrogation, and particularly the counterintelligence interrogation of resistant sources. Designed as an aid for interrogators and others immediately concerned, it is based largely upon the published results of extensive research, including scientific inquiries conducted by specialists in closely related subjects.
There is nothing mysterious about interrogation. It consists of no more than obtaining needed information through responses to questions. As is true of all craftsmen, some interrogators are more able than others; manaul some of their superiority may be innate.
But sound interrogation nevertheless rests upon a knowledge of the subject matter and on certain broad principles, chiefly psychological, which are not hard to understand. The success of good interrogators depends in large measure upon their use, conscious manhal not, of these principles and of processes and techniques deriving from them. Knowledge of subject matter and of the basic principles will not of itself create a successful interrogation, but it will make possible the avoidance of mistakes that are characteristic of poor interrogation.
The purpose, then, is not to teach the reader how to be a good interrogator but rather to tell him what he must learn in order to become a good interrogator.
The interrogation of a resistant source who is a staff or agent member of an Orbit intelligence or security service or of a clandestine Communist organization is one of the most exacting of professional tasks. Usually the odds still favor the interrogator, but they are sharply cut by the training, experience, patience and toughness of the interrogatee. In such circumstances the interrogator needs all the help that he can get.
And a principal source of aid today is scientific findings. The intelligence service which is able to bring pertinent, modern knowledge to bear upon its problems enjoys huge advantages over a service which conducts its clandestine business in eighteenth century fashion. It is true that American psychologists have devoted somewhat more attention to Communist interrogation techniques, particularly “brainwashing”, than to U. Yet they have conducted scientific inquiries into many subjects that are closely related to interrogation: This work is of sufficient importance and relevance that it is no longer possible to discuss interrogation significantly without reference to the psychological research conducted in the past decade.
For this reason a major purpose of this study is to focus relevant scientific findings upon CI interrogation. Every effort has been made to report and interpret these findings in our own language, in place of the terminology employed by the psychologists.
This study is by no means confined to a resume and interpretation of psychological findings. The approach of the psychologists is customarily manipulative; that is, they suggest methods of imposing controls or alterations upon the interrogatee from the outside.
Except within kubaek Communist frame of reference, they have paid less attention to the creation of internal controls — i. Moral considerations aside, the imposition of external techniques of manipulating people carries with it the grave risk of later lawsuits, adverse publicity, or other attempts to strike back.
The definitions, legal considerations, and discussions of interrogators and sources, as well as Section VI on screening and other preliminaries, are relevant to all kinds of interrogations.
Once it is established that the source is probably a counterintelligence target in other words, is probably a member of a foreign intelligence or security service, a Communist, or a part of any other group engaged in clandestine activity directed against the national securitythe interrogation is planned and conducted accordingly. The CI interrogation techniques are discussed in an order of increasing intensity as the focus on source resistance grows sharper.
The last section, on do’s and dont’s, is a return to the broader view of the opening parts; as a check-list, it is placed last solely for convenience.
Most of the intelligence terminology employed here which may once have been ambiguous has been clarified through usage or through KUBARK instructions. For this reason definitions have been omitted for such terms as burn notice, defector, escapee, and refugee. Other definitions have been included despite a common agreement about meaning if the significance is shaded by the context. Yet detention in a controlled environment and perhaps for a lengthy period is frequently essential to a successful counterintelligence interrogation of a recalcitrant source.
The legality of detaining and questioning a person, and of the methods employed, [approx.
The CIA wrote a torture manual more than 50 years ago, and then gave it to Latin American dictators
Detention poses the most common of the legal problems. Some security services, especially those of the Sino-Soviet Bloc, may work at leisure, depending upon time as well as their own methods to melt recalcitrance.
Accordingly, unless it is considered that the prospective interrogatee is cooperative and will remain so indefinitely, the first step in planning an mxnual is to determine how long the source can be held. Kanual choice of methods depends in part upon the answer to this question. The handling and questioning of defectors are subject to the provisions of [one or two words deleted] Directive No.
Those concerned with the interrogation of defectors, escapees, refugees, or repatriates should know these references. First, such interrogations should not be conducted for reasons lying outside the sphere of KUBARK’ s responsibilities. For example, the [approx. ODENVY has requested that it be informed, in advance if time permits, if any investigative steps are undertaken in these cases.
Since KUBARK employees cannot be witnesses in court, each investigation must be conducted in such a manner that evidence obtained may be properly introduced if the case comes to trial. Interrogations conducted under compulsion or duress are especially likely to involve illegality and to entail damaging consequences for KUBARK.
Therefore prior Headquarters approval at the KUDOVE level must be obtained for the interrogation of any source against his will and under any of the following circumstances:. The CI interrogator dealing with an uncooperative interrogatee who has been well-briefed by a hostile service on the legal restrictions under which ODYOKE services operate must expect some effective delaying tactics.
I know I will not be tortured and that under the procedures of western law I can conduct myself boldly. Remembering that time is on his side, the interrogator should arrange to get as much of kubafk as he needs.
The CIA wrote a torture manual more than 50 years ago, and then gave it to Latin American dictators
A number of studies of interrogation discuss qualities said to be desirable in an interrogator. The list seems almost endless – a professional manner, forcefulness, understanding and sympathy, breadth of general knowledge, area knowledge, “a practical knowledge of psychology”, skill in the tricks of the trade, alertness, perseverance, integrity, discretion, patience, a high I. Some texts even discuss the interrogator’s manners and grooming, and one prescribed the traits considered desirable in his secretary.
A repetition of this catalogue would serve no purpose here, especially because almost all of the characteristics mentioned are also desirable in case officers, agents, policemen, salesmen, lumberjacks, and everybody else.
KUBARK Counterintelligence Interrogation
The search of the pertinent scientific literature disclosed no reports of studies based on common denominator traits of successful interrogators or any other controlled inquiries that would invest these lists with any objective validity.
Perhaps the four qualifications of chief importance to the interrogator are 1 enough operational training and experience to permit quack recognition of leads; 2 real familiarity with the language to be used; 3 extensive background knowledge about the interrogatee’s native country and intelligence service, if employed by one ; and 4 a genuine understanding of the source as a person. Whenever a number of interrogators is available, the percentage of successes is increased by careful matching of questioners and sources and by ensuring that rigid prescheduling does not prevent such matching.
Of the four traits listed, a genuine insight into the source’s character and motives is perhaps most important but least common. Later portions of this manual explore this topic in more detail.
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One general observation is introduced now, however, because it is considered basic to the establishment of rapport, upon which the success of non-coercive interrogation depends. The interrogator should remember that he and the interrogatee are often working at cross-purposes not because the interrogates is malevolently withholding or misleading but simply because what he wants front the situation is not what the interrogator wants.
The interrogator’s goal is to obtain useful information — facts about mubark the interrogatee presumably have acquired information. But at the outset of the interrogation, and perhaps for a long time afterwards, the person being questioned is not greatly concerned with communicating his body of specialized information to his questioner; he is concerned with putting his best foot forward.
Such an agent may feel confident enough not to be gravely concerned about himself. His primary interest, from the beginning, may be the acquisition of information about the interrogator and his service.
The skilled interrogator can save a great deal of time by understanding the emotional needs of the interrogates. Most people confronted by an official — and dimly powerful — representative of a foreign power will get down to cases much faster if made to feel, from the start, kubatk they are being treated as individuals. So simple a matter as greeting an interrogatee by his name at the manal of the session establishes in his mind the comforting awareness that he is considered as a person, not a squeezable sponge.
This is not to say that egotistic types should be allowed to bask at length in the warmth of individual manyal. But it is important to assuage the fear of denigration which afflicts many people when first interrogated mnaual making it clear that the individuality kubarkk the interrogatee is recognized.
With this common understanding established, the interrogation can move on to impersonal matters and will not later be thwarted or interrupted — or at least not as often — by irrelevant answers designed not to provide facts but to prove that the interrogatee is a respectable member of the human race.
Although it is often necessary to trick people into telling what we need to know, especially in CI interrogations, the initial question which the interrogator asks of himself should be, “How can I make him want to tell me what he knows? But the assumption of hostility — or at kubsrk the use of pressure tactics at the first encounter — may make difficult subjects even out of those who would respond to recognition of individuality and an janual assumption of good will.
Another preliminary comment about the interrogator is that normally he should not personalize. That is, he should not be pleased, flattered, frustrated, goaded, or otherwise emotionally and personally affected by the interrogation.
A calculated display of feeling employed for a specific purpose is an exception; but even under these circumstances the interrogator is in full control. The interrogation situation is intensely inter-personal; it is therefore all the more necessary to strike a counter-balance by an attitude which the subject kuark recognizes as essentially fair and objective.
The kind of person who cannot help personalizing, who becomes emotionally involved in the interrogation situation, may have chance and even spectacular successes as an interrogator but is almost certain to have a poor batting average. It is frequently said that the interrogator should be “a good judge of human nature.
The consensus of research is that with respect to many manua, of judgments, at least some judges perform reliably better than chance It follows that errors in assessment and in handling are likelier to result from snap judgments based upon the assumption of innate skill in judging others than from holding such judgments in abeyance until enough facts are known.
There has been a good deal of discussion of interrogation experts mubark. Such facts as are available suggest that the latter have a slight advantage. Manuql for counterintelligence purposes the debate is academic. The use of beginning interrogators as screeners see part VI kubatk also recommended. Although there is some limited validity in the view, frequently expressed in interrogation primers, that the interrogation is essentially a battle of wits, the CI interrogator who encounters a skilled and resistant interrogatee should remember that a wide variety of aids can be made available in the field or from Headquarters.
The intensely personal nature of the interrogation situation makes it all the more necessary that the KUBARK questioner should aim not for a personal triumph but for his true goal — the acquisition of kubqrk needed information by any authorized means. From the viewpoint of the intelligence service the categories of persons who most frequently provide useful information in response to questioning are travellers; repatriates; defectors, escapees, and refugees; transferred sources; agents, including provocateurs, double agents, and penetration agents; and swindlers kbuark fabricators.
If they are interrogated, the reason is that they are known or believed to fall into one of the following categories. The proprietary interests of the host government will frequently dictate interrogation kubqrk a liaison service rather than by KUBARK.
Preliminary assessment of motivation including political orientationreliability, and capability as observer and reporter. Full particulars are needed. The experience of the post-war years has demonstrated that Soviet defectors 1 almost never defect solely or primarily because of inducement by a Western service, 2 usually leave the USSR for personal rather than ideological reasons, and 3 are often RIS agents.
All analyses kubxrk the defector-refugee flow have shown that the Orbit services are well-aware of the advantages offered by this channel as a means of planting their agents in target countries. Whenever possible, KUBARK should secure a copy of the file or manua full informational equivalent before accepting custody. If it is then established or strongly suspected that the agent belongs to one of the following categories, further investigation and, eventually, interrogation usually follow.
The manal of systems devised for categorizing human beings is large, and most of mahual are of dubious validity. Various categorical schemes are outlined in treatises on interrogation. The two typologies most frequently advocated are psychologic-emotional and geographic-cultural.
Those who urge the former argue that the basic emotional-psychological patterns do not vary significantly with time, place, or culture.