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variety of methods including traditional factor of safety approaches, including BS (BSI, ) and (BSI, ), CIRIA C (Phear et al, ) . Publisher: CIRIA. Soil nailing is a technique where either natural ground or fill material is reinforced by the insertion of slender tension-carrying elements called . thread Hi, My dissertation is within the scope of nailing in soils. I would like to consult the book mentioned in the topic title with the.

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All the soil parameters are summarized in Table 4.

The size and alignment of the drillholes can be checked before the insertion of reinforcement, if needed. A parametric study was carried out to study the effects of the soil nail bending stiffness and the soil modulus of the subgrade reaction on the soil nail pullout behaviour.

All field test walls were brought to failure, and they are the few published cases where structures were monitored until failure.

The method offers an alternative design solution to the conventional techniques of cutting back and retaining wall construction. It was found that the stronger the applied overburden pressure, the greater the soil settlement, and the longer the time needed to obtain stress equilibrium. The analysis of the soil mass around the soil nail can be simplified as an axisymmetric problem. Using the values obtained in Figure 6.

Tens of thousands of soil nails have been installed for stabilizing existing substandard existing soil slopes or new man-made slopes each year. Home About Help Search. Laboratory tests were therefore chosen since they offer a better possibility to control the factors mentioned above, hence eliminating any uncertainties associated with field test results.

It was observed that soil settlement mainly happened during overburden pressure application, and occurred less during drilling, grouting, saturation and pullout. Laboratory Soil Nail Pullout Experiments and Results c Average effective stress at P-Cells 5 and 6 5 6 Average effective stress at P-Cells 1, 2, 3, and 4 3 4 Average pore water pressure 1 2 Pressure kPa 0 0 Time min Figure 5. The effect of grouting pressure is seldom taken into account in the soil nailing design.

Consolidated and drained compression tests were carried out under three different confining pressures kPa, kPa, and kPa. They have been successfully adopted in the analysis of a soil nailed system to determine the factor of safety and locations of critical failure planes.

PUB C Soil nailing – best practice guidance, CIRIA – Publication Index | NBS

The applied overburden pressure varied from 80 kPa to kPa and the applied grouting pressure ranged from 80 kPa to kPa. Write a review Rate this item: Results of the original soil and after 24 pullout tests are shown together with the present results in Figure 4. The soil nail is not only subjected to tensile forces, but also shear forces and bending moments. The laboratory pullout tests Su showed that the development of pullout shear resistance of soil nails in the completely decomposed granite was mainly mobilized by the constrained dilatancy of the soil.


This is accomplished by installing closely spaced, passive, structural inclusions, known as nails, into the soils to increase their overall shear strength.

This demonstrates that the soil nails contributes significantly to the stability of the cut slope. As suggested by Luo et al. The FBG sensors were installed beside the locations of strain gauges to compare and verify the results of the strain gauges during testing.

The peak resistance is defined as the peak average shear stress at the soil-nail interface during pullout. Jewell proposed that the average normal effective stress is in the cidia of 0.

Soil nailing : best practice guidance

The soil nail surface, the soil nail diameter, the degree of saturation of the soil, and the locations of the earth pressure cells were measured and are summarized below.

Cifia present new test data are analyzed together with those of Su in the following analysis. The reinforcement was installed as shown in Figure 3. It is seen the earth pressure at P-Cells ciriq, 2, 3, 4 increase significantly when the 80 kPa grouting pressure is applied, and then drop to stable values with time. The load cell was calibrated using a dead weight. The different initial earth pressures at P-Cells 1, 2, 3, and 4 before grouting are also observed in other test data shown in Figure 5.

Tei carried out series of soil nail pullout tests in three types of sands using a mm long, mm wide and mm high pullout box, as shown in Figure 2. In the shear box apparatus, as the nail length is relatively too small to generate a large axial force, the nail bending makes a larger contribution to the shear resistance of the soil-nail interface.

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Soil nailing – best practice guidance (C637)

This phenomenon was also found in previous pullout tests Su The typical results and observations during and after the overburden pressure application, hole drilling, pressure grouting, soil saturation, and soil nail pullout are then presented and discussed.


This was similar to the Ckria conclusions drawn from the French and German projects, even though pullout tests should be conducted to substantiate the theoretical calculation.

The predicted curves agree well with the reported data. When water flows into the voids in the soil, the soil particles surrounding the soil nail move and re-arrange, and the arching around the soil nail is relaxed.

The influence of soil nail bending stiffness is shown in Figure 3. The changes of the vertical pressures at the other two earth pressure cells P-Cells 5 and cciria are not significant, as they are relatively far away from the drillhole. Therefore, comparing the results of the two case studies, it can be cirja that the relative contributions of the three normal firia depend on the geometry characteristics, the bending stiffness of the reinforcement, the soil properties and the failure mechanism of the reinforced structure.

It is seen that the interface shear stress initially increases linearly with pullout displacement until reaches 54 kPa at 2. Thus the effect of dilation in the saturated cria should be much smaller than that in the tests carried out in an unsaturated condition.

The greater normal stress is considered to be balanced by the overburden pressure.

Soil nailing – best practice guidance (C)

Cancel Forgot your password? It is found that both overburden pressure and cirua pressure have influences on soil nail pullout resistance, and their influences are interactional. It is seen in Figure 5. The pullout test data are further analyzed, compared and interpreted in Chapter 6. The icria water pressure transducers were calibrated within the range from 0kPa to kPa, while the tensiometers were calibrated up to its limit, kPa.

However, the bending of the soil nail is likely to have influences on the normal pressure along the soil nail length, and hence influence the shear resistance of the soil-nail interface. Please re-enter recipient e-mail address es. Apart from permanent works, soil nails may be used in temporary excavations. The results of Su for the tests without grouting pressure, i. It should be noted that some researchers argue that the direct shear tests could not represent the behaviour of the reinforcement in the slope Sawicki