Site Overlay


Author: Nagore Daizilkree
Country: Pacific Islands
Language: English (Spanish)
Genre: Technology
Published (Last): 7 April 2006
Pages: 482
PDF File Size: 4.44 Mb
ePub File Size: 8.58 Mb
ISBN: 544-2-45789-475-9
Downloads: 89124
Price: Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]
Uploader: Gakree

The original algorithm was described only for natural numbers and geometric lengths real numbersbut the algorithm was generalized in the 19th century to other types of numbers, such as Gaussian integers and polynomials of one variable. However, in a model of computation suitable for computation with larger numbers, the computational expense of a single remainder computation in the algorithm can be as large as O h 2.

Classical Theory of Algebraic Numbers. Instead of representing an integer by its digits, it may be represented by its remainders x i modulo a set of N coprime numbers m i: For example, the division-based version may be programmed as [19].

Euclidean algorithm – Wikipedia

If r k is replaced by e k. Computations using this algorithm form part of the cryptographic protocols that are used to secure internet communications, and in methods for breaking these cryptosystems by factoring large euclld numbers. A single integer division is equivalent to the quotient q number of subtractions. The Mathematical Association of America. Retrieved from ” https: This failure of unique factorization in some cyclotomic fields led Ernst Kummer to the concept of algorotma numbers and, later, Richard Dedekind to ideals.

In the second step, any natural number c eucild divides both a and b in other words, any common divisor of a and b divides the remainders r k. Euclid’s lemma suffices to prove that every number has a unique factorization into prime numbers. A third average Y n is defined as the mean number of steps required when both a and b are chosen randomly with uniform distribution from 1 to n []. For other uses of “Euclidean”, see Euclidean disambiguation.

For comparison, Euclid’s original subtraction-based algorithm can be much slower. The greatest common divisor g of a and b is the unique positive common divisor of a and b that is divisible by any other common divisor c.


The Euclidean algorithm is based on the principle that the greatest common divisor of two numbers does not change if the larger number is replaced by its difference with the smaller number. It is an example of an algorithma step-by-step procedure for performing a calculation according to well-defined rules, and is one of the oldest algorithms in common use.

The corresponding conclusions about the Euclidean algorithm and its applications hold even for such polynomials. We then attempt to tile the residual rectangle with r 0 -by- r 0 square tiles.

Combining the estimated number of steps with the estimated computational expense per step shows that the Euclid’s algorithm grows quadratically h 2 with the average number of digits h in the initial two numbers a and b.

euclkd The Euclidean algorithm is one of the oldest algorithms in common use. The average number of steps taken by the Euclidean algorithm has been defined in three different ways.

Mathematical Methods and Algorithms. For instance, one of the standard proofs of Lagrange’s four-square theoremthat every positive integer can be represented as a sum of four squares, is based on quaternion GCDs in this way.

A step of the Euclidean algorithm that replaces the first of the two numbers corresponds to a step in the tree from a node to its right child, and a step that replaces the second of the two numbers corresponds to a step in the tree from a node to its left child. The Euclidean algorithm can be visualized in terms of the tiling analogy given above for the greatest common divisor.

If another number ruclid also divides L but is coprime with uthen w must divide vby the following argument: The version of the Euclidean algorithm described above and by Euclid can take many subtraction steps to find the GCD when one of the given numbers is much bigger than the other.


Euclid’s algorithm can also be used to solve multiple linear Diophantine equations.

Euclid’s algorithm can be applied to real numbersas described by Euclid in Book 10 of his Elements. This article is about an algorithm for the greatest common divisor. It is generally faster than the Euclidean algorithm on real computers, even though it scales in the same way. At each step ka quotient polynomial q k x and a remainder polynomial r k x are identified to satisfy the recursive equation. This restriction on the acceptable solutions allows some systems of Diophantine equations with more unknowns than equations to have a finite number of solutions; [68] this is impossible for a system of linear equations when the solutions can be any real number see Underdetermined system.

This equation can be solved by the Euclidean algorithm, as described above.

Euclidean algorithm

The validity of the Euclidean algorithm can be proven by a two-step argument. The number of steps of this approach grows linearly with bor exponentially in the number of digits.

Since the degree is a nonnegative integer, and since it decreases with every step, the Euclidean algorithm concludes in a finite number of steps.

In tabular form, the steps are.

Nevertheless, these general operations should respect many of the laws governing ordinary arithmetic, such as commutativityassociativity and distributivity. But lengths, areas, and volumes, represented as real numbers in modern usage, are not measured in the same units and ejclid is no natural unit of length, area, or volume; the concept of real numbers was unknown at that time.

Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.